Conceptual graphs (CGs) are a system of logic based on the existential graphs of Charles Sanders Peirce and the semantic networks of artificial intelligence. They express meaning in a form that is logically precise, humanly readable, and computationally tractable. With their direct mapping to language, conceptual graphs serve as an intermediate language for translating computer-oriented formalisms to and from natural languages. With their graphic representation, they serve as a readable, but formal design and specification language. CGs have been implemented in a variety of projects for information retrieval, database design, expert systems, and natural language processing.
There is a standard for the Conceptual Graphs Interchange Format (CGIF). This standard was developed in conjunction with the ISO Common Logic Project, which seeks to standardize a form of logic for knowledge interchange, and includes three syntaxes for Common Logic, one of which is CGIF in Annex B. Comments and suggestions on the entire standard are welcome; see the web site for more details.
Here are some documents that may be of some historical interest. Note that CGIF has undergone significant changes from these documents; see the current standard (above).
A very old draft proposed (c. 1998) for conceptual graphs:
John F. Sowa's bibliography page
ICCS Conferences dblp:Computer Science bibliography page
Aalborg University - Department of Communication
Sheffield Hallam University, UK
Universite Laval, Quebec City, Canada
University of Montpellier 2, CNRS and INRA
Amine - a multi-layer platform dedicated to the development of Intelligent Systems and Multi-agent Systems.
CharGer - a prototype conceptual graph editor developed at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, free for noncommercial use, and runs under Java.
CG Mars Lander - fast conceptual graph retrieval and question answering tool, available for joint development and industrial funding.
CoGITaNT - several useful utilities: a set of library routines in C++ for conceptual modeling, some knowledge bases in conceptual graphs, and an XML specification for CGXML.
CPE - a modular environment that provides modules to give functionality to a user without having to take the whole environment. Currently, there is a CGIF editor, ARCEdit and other CG Operations (Projection and Maximal Join) should be available in the future.
GoGui - a free graph-based visual tool, developed in Java, for building Conceptual Graph knowledge bases represented in COGXML format, compatible with CoGITaNT (see above).
Prolog+CG - an object-oriented extension of PROLOG, based on CG. CG (both simple and compound) is a basic data structure, like term. PROLOG+CG is implemented with Java.
WebKB - tools for information retrieval and knowledge representation.
At ICCS'05 in Kassel, Germany, a discussion was held about how to further the progress of CG tools. Here is a summary of the discussion.
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